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Greg Sword

Sword, Greg
Greg Sword
Professor and Charles R. Parencia Chair in Cotton Entomology
Entomology Research Lab, 114C, Labs: Entomology Research Lab, 113-120
(979) 862-1702
Undergraduate Education
B.Sc. University of Arizona, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1992
Graduate Education
Ph.D. University of Texas, Department of Zoology, 1998

Research Interests:
I have broad interests in insect ecology, evolution, genetics and behavior including:

  • Migration and movement
  • Population genetics
  • Functional genomics
  • Phenotypic plasticity
  • Nutritional ecology
  • Collective behavior
  • Plant-insect-predator interactions
  • Plant-fungus-insect interactions
  • Insect management

My research is multidisciplinary and incorporates approaches ranging from molecular biology to landscape ecology. My recent appointment as the Charles R. Parencia Chair in Cotton Entomology provides me with an exciting and challenging opportunity to further diversify my research program to include insects in cotton agroecosystems.


2010-current: Professor and Charles R. Parencia Chair in Cotton Entomology
Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University

2009 – 2010 Associate Professor
Director of First Year Biology
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney

2006 – 2009 Senior Lecturer
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney

2000 – 2005 Research Ecologist
USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory

1998 – 2000 Postdoctoral Fellow
University of Oxford, Department of Zoology
University of Arizona, ARL-Division of Neurobiology

Teaching Activities:

EEBL608  Integrative Animal Behavior

ENTO402 Field Crop Insects

ENTO681 Current and Emerging Topics in Entomology

ENTO681 Current Topics in Insect Phenotypic Plasticity

ENTO491 Undergraduate Research


Journal Articles

  1. Glover, J.P, Sword, G.A. & Brewer, M.J. (in press) Photoperiod-specific within-plant distribution of the green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on cotton. Environmental Entomology.
  2. Raszick, T.J., Suh, C.P.-C., Dickens, C. M. & Sword, G.A. (in press) Genome-wide markers reveal temporal instability in population genetic structure in the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus. Pest Management Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5518
  3. Glover, J.P., Brewer, M.J., Parajulee, M.N. & Sword, G.A. (in press) Plant response and economic injury levels for a boll-feeding sucking bug complex on cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz018
  4. Deans, C.A., Sword, G.A. & Behmer, S.T. (2019) First evidence of protein-carbohydrate regulation in a plant bug (Lygus hesperus). Journal of Insect Physiology 116:118-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2019.05.004
  5. Wang, H.-H., Grant, W.E., Elliot, N.C., Brewer, M., Koralewski, T.E., Westbrook, J.K., Alves, T.M. & Sword, G.A. (2019) Integrated modelling of the life cycle and aeroecology of wind-borne pests in temporally-variable spatially-heterogeneous environments. Ecological Modelling 399:23-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2019.02.014
  6. Xu, J.J., Zhang, Y.C., Wu, J.Q., Wang, W.H., Li, Y., Wan, G.J., Chen, F.J., Sword, G.A. & Pan, W.D. (2019) Molecular characterization, spatial-temporal expression and magnetic response patterns of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly1 (IscA1) in the rice planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Insect Science 26:413-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12546
  7. Wu, Q.L., Westbrook, J.K., Hu, G., Lu, M.H., Liu, W.C., Sword, G.A. & Zhai, B.P. (2018) Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography. International Journal of Biometeorology 62:1389-1406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1538-y
  8. Heinz, K.M., Harding, P.A., Ek-Ramos, M.J., Hernandez, H., Krauter, P.C. & Sword, G.A. (2018) Fungal endophytes in Knockout rose and performance effects of entomopathogens on Marigold and Zinnia. HortScience 53:1791-1798. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13370-18
  9. Akbar, W., Gowda, A., Ahrens, J.E., Greenplate, J.T., Brown, R.S., Stelzer, J.W., Bollman, S.L., Gore, J., Catchot, A.L., Lorenz, G., Stewart, S.D., Kerns, D.L., Green, J., Toews, M.D., Herbert, D.A., Reisig, D.D., Sword, G.A., Ellsworth, P.C., Godfrey, L.D. & Clark, D.L. (2018) First transgenic trait for control of plant bugs and thrips in cotton. Pest Management Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5234
  10. Wu, Q.L, Hu, G., Westbrook, J.K., Sword, G.A. & Zhai, B.P. (2018) An advanced numerical trajectory model tracks a corn earworm moth migration event in Texas, USA. Insects 9:1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9030115
  11. Deans, C.A., Sword, G.A., Lenhart, P.A., Burkness, E., Hutchison, W. & Behmer, S.T. (2018) Quantifying plant soluble protein and digestible carbohydrate content, using corn (Zea mays) as an exemplar. Journal of Video Experiments 138:e58164. https://doi.org/10.3791/58164
  12. Zhou, W., Wheeler, T.A., Starr, J.L., Valencia, C.U. & Sword, G.A. (2018) A fungal endophyte defensive symbiosis affects plant-nematode interactions in cotton. Plant and Soil 422:251-266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-016-3147-z
  13. Lo, N., Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2018) Epigenetics and developmental plasticity in orthopteroid insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25:25-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.003
  14. Tessnow, A.E., Behmer, S.T., Walsh, T.K. & Sword, G.A. (2018) Protein-carbohydrate regulation in Helicoverpa amigera and punctigera and how diet protein-carbohydrate content affects insect susceptibility to Bt toxins. Journal of Insect Physiology 106:88-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2017.07.004
  15. Sword, G.A., Tessnow, A.E. & Ek-Ramos, M.J. (2017) Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures. Insect Science 24:1003–1014. (Cover photo) https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12461
  16. Fiene, J.G., Mallick, S. Mittal, A., Nansen, C., Kalns, L., Dever, J., Sword, G.A. & Rock, C.D. (2017) Characterization of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) over-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Related to ABA- Insensitive3(ABI3)/Vivparous1 (AtRAV1) and AtABI5 transcription factors: improved water use efficiency through altered guard cell physiology. Plant Biotechnology Reports 11:339-353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11816-017-0455-6
  17. Cullen, D.A., Cease, A.J., Latchininsky, A.V., Ayali, A., Berry, K., Buhl, J., De Keyser, R., Foquet, B., Hadrich, J.C., Matheson, T., Ott, S.R., Poot-Pech, M.A., Robinson, B.E., Smith, J.M., Song, H., Sword, G.A., Vanden Broeck, J., Verdonck, R., Verlinden, H. & Rogers, S.M (2017) From Molecules to Management: Mechanisms and Consequences of Locust Phase Polyphenism. Advances in Insect Physiology53:167–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.06.002
  18. Xu, J., Pan, W., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Wan, G., Chen, F., Sword, G.A. & Pan, W. (2017) Behavioral evidence for a magnetic sense in the Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separate. Biology Open 6:340-347. https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.022954
  19. Deans, C.A., Behmer, S.T., Tessnow, A., Tamez-Guerra, P., Pusztai-Carey, M. & Sword, G.A. (2017) Nutrition affects insect susceptibility to Bt Scientific Reports 7:39705. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep39705
  20. Deans, C.A., Behmer, S.T. Fiene, J. & Sword, G.A. (2016) Spatio-temporal, genotypic, and environmental effects on plant soluble protein and digestible carbohydrate content: Implications for insect herbivores with cotton as an exemplar. Journal of Chemical Ecology https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-016-0772-1
  21. Wan, G.-J., Yuan, R., Wang, W.-J., Fu, K.-Y., Zhao, J.-Y., Jiang, S.-L., Pan, W.-D., Sword, G.A. & Chen, F.-J. (2016) Reduced geomagnetic field may affect positive phototaxis and flight capacity of a migratory rice planthopper. Animal Behaviour 121:107-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.08.024
  22. Zhou, W., Starr, J.T., Krumm, J. & Sword, G.A. (2016) The fungal endophyte, Chaetomium globosum, affects both above- and below-ground herbivores in cotton. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 92: fiw158. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw158
  23. Deans, C.A., Sword, G.A. & Behmer, S.T. (2016) Nutrition as a neglected factor in insect herbivore susceptibility to Bt Current Opinion in Insect Science 15:97-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2016.04.005
  24. Robinson, K.L., Tohidi-Esfahani, D., Ponton, F., Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A. & Lo, N. (2016) Alternative migratory locust phenotypes are associated with differences in the expression of genes encoding the methylation machinery. Insect Molecular Biology 25:105-115. https://doi.org/10.1111/imb.12203
  25. Deans, C.A., Sword, G.A. & Behmer, S.T. (2015) Revisiting macronutrient regulation in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Leptidoperta: Noctuidae): New insights via a geometric approach. Journal of Insect Physiology 81:21-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.06.015
  26. Wan, G., Jiang, S., Wang, W., Li, G., Tao, X., Pan, W., Sword, G.A. & Chen, F. (2015) Rice stripe virus counters reduced fecundity in its insect vector by modifying insect physiology, primary endosymbionts and feeding behavior. Scientific Reports 5:12527. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12527
  27. Wan, G., Wang, W., Xu, J., Tang, Q., Dai, M., Zhang, F., Sword, G.A., Pan, W. & Chen, F. (2015) Cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction under near-zero magnetic fields: new clues to magnetoreception in a rice planthopper. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0132966. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132966
  28. Antwi, J.A., Sword, G.A. & Medina, R.F. (2015) Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore. Ecology & Evolution https://doi/10.1002/ece3.1526.
  29. Lopez, D.C. & Sword, G.A. (2015) The endophytic fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum enhance the growth of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and negatively affect survival of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea). Biological Control 89:53-60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.03.010
  30. Veran, S., Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A., Deveson, E., Piry, S., Hines, J.E. & Berthier, K. (2015) Modeling spatiotemporal dynamics of outbreaking species: relative influence of environment and dispersal in the Australian plague locust. Ecology 96:737–748. https://doi.org/10.1890/14-0183.1
  31. Lihoreau, M., Buhl, J., Sword, G.A., Raubenheimer, D. & Simpson, S.J. (2015) Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions. Ecology Letters 18:273-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12406
  32. Lihoreau, M., Buhl, J., Charleston, M.A., Sword, G.A., Raubenheimer, D. & Simpson, S.J. (2014) Modeling nutrition across organizational levels: from individuals to superorganisms. Journal of Insect Physiology 69:2-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.03.004
  33. Lopez, D.C., Zhu-Salzman, K., Ek-Ramos, M.J. & Sword, G.A. (2014) The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana can negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions. PLoS ONE 9(8): e103891. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103891
  34. Wan, G., Zhao, Z., Xu, J., Tao, X., Sword, G.A., Gao, Y., Pan, W & Chen, F. (2014) Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Journal of Insect Physiology 68:7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.06.016
  35. Rogers, S.M., Cullen, D.A., Anstey, M.L., Burrows, M., Despland, E., Dodgson, T., Matheson, T., Ott, S.R., Stettin, K., Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2014) Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics. Journal of Insect Physiology 65:9-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.04.004
  36. Fiene, J.G., Sword, G.A., VanLaerhoven, S. & Tarone, A.M. (2014) The role of spatial aggregation in forensic entomology. Journal of Medical Entomology 51:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1603/ME13050
  37. Fiene, J.G., Harris, M., Bernal, J., Nansen, C., Kalns, L. & Sword, G.A. (2013) Foraging on individual leaves by an intracellular feeding insect is not correlated with leaf biomechanical properties or leaf orientation. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80911. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080911
  38. Ek-Ramos, M.J., Zhou, W., Valencia, C.U., Antwi, J.B., Kalns, L.L., Morgan, G.D., Kerns, D.L. & Sword, G.A. (2013) Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). PLoS ONE 8(6): e66049. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066049
  39. Buhl, J., Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2012) Using field data to test locust migratory band collective movement models. Interface Focus. https://10.1098/rsfs.2012.0024
  40. Ma, C., Yang, P., Jiang, F., Chapuis, M-P., Sha Li, Y.S., Sword, G.A. & Kang, L. (2012) Mitochondrial genomes reveal global phylogeography and dispersal routes of the migratory locust. Molecular Ecology 21:4344–4358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05684.x
  41. Guttal, V., Romanczuk, P., Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A. & Couzin, I.D. (2012) Cannibalism can drive the evolution of behavioral phase polyphenism in locusts. Ecology Letters 15:1158-1166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01840.x
  42. Cullen, D.A., Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2012) Optimizing multivariate behavioural syndrome models in locusts using automated video tracking. Animal Behaviour 84:771-784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.06.031
  43. Chapuis, M-P., Streiff, R. & Sword, G.A. (2012) Long microsatellites and unusually high levels of genetic diversity in the Orthoptera. Insect Molecular Biology 21:181-186. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2011.01124.x
  44. Blanchet, E., Lecoq, M., Sword, G.A., Pages, C., Blondin, L., Billot, C., Rivallan, R., Foucart, A., Vassal, J-M., Risterucci, A-M. & Chapuis, M-P. (2012) Population structures of three Calliptamus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) across the Western Mediterranean Basin. European Journal of Entomology 109:445–455. https//doi.org/10.14411/eje.2012.057
  45. Blanchet, E., Lecoq, M., Sword, G.A., Berthier, K., Pages, C., Billot, C., Rivallan, R., Vassal, J.M., Risterucci, A.M. & Chapuis, M-P. (2012) A comparative analysis of fine-scale genetic structure in three closely-related syntopic grasshopper species (Calliptamus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:31-41. https://doi.org/10.1139/z11-109
  46. Chapuis, M-P., Simpson, S.J., Blondin, L. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Taxa-specific heat shock proteins are over-expressed with crowding in the Australian plague locust. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:1562–1567.
  47. Robinson, K.L., Tohidi-Esfahani, D., Lo, N., Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Evidence for widespread genomic methylation in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). PLoS ONE 6(12): e28167. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028167
  48. Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A. & Lo, N. (2011) Polyphenism in insects. Current Biology 21:R738-749.
  49. Buhl, J., Sword, G.A., Clissold, F. & Simpson, S.J. (2011) Group structure in locust migratory bands. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:265–273.
  50. Berthier, K., Chapuis, M-P., Moosavi, S.M., Tohidi-Esfahani, D. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Nuclear insertions and heteroplasmy of mitochondrial DNA as two sources of intra-individual genomic variation in grasshoppers. Systematic Entomology 38:285-299.
  51. Chapuis, M-P., Popple, J.A., Berthier. , Simpson, S.J., Deveson, E. Spurgin, P., Steinbauer, M.J. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Challenges to assessing connectivity between massive populations of the Australian Plague locust. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278:3152-3160.
  52. Chapuis, M-P., Tohidi-Esfahani, D., Dodgson, T., Blondin, L., Ponton, F., Cullen, D.A., Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Assessment and validation of a suite of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR reference genes for analyses of density-dependent behavioural plasticity in the Australian plague locust. BMC Molecular Biology 12:7.
  53. Gurulingappa, P., McGee, P.A. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Endophytic Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival and development of Aphis gossypii following contact with conidia and secondary metabolites. Crop Protection 30:249-352.
  54. Gurulingappa, P., McGee, P.A. & Sword, G.A. (2011) In vitro and in planta compatibility of insecticides and the endophytic entomopathogen, Lecanicillium lecanii. Mycopathologia 172:161-168.
  55. Hansen, M.J., Buhl, J., Bazazi, S., Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Cannibalism in the lifeboat – collective movement in Australian plague locusts. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 9: 1715-1720.
  56. Bazazi S., Romanczuk, P., Thomas, S., Schimansky-Geier, L., Hale, J.J., Miller, G.A., Sword, G.A., Simpson, S.J. & Couzin, I.D. (2011) Nutritional state and collective motion: from individuals to mass migration. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278:356-363. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1447
  57. Latchininsky, A., Sword, G., Sergeev, M., Cigliano, M.M. & Lecoq, M. (2011) Locusts and Grasshoppers: Behavior, Ecology, and Biogeography. Psyche 578327:1-4.
  58. Ponton, F., Chapuis, M-P., Pernice, M., Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2011) Evaluation of potential reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR studies of physiological responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:840-850.
  59. Sword, G.A., Lecoq, M. & Simpson, S.J. (2010) Phase polyphenism and preventative locust management. Journal of Insect Physiology 56:949-957.
  60. Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2010) Evolving migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107:16753-16754.
  61. Branson, D.B. & Sword, G.A. (2010) An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Environmental Entomology 39:1441-1446.
  62. Cullen, D.A., Sword, G.A., Dodgson, T. & Simpson, S.J. (2010) Behavioural phase change in the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is triggered by tactile stimulation of the antennae. Journal of Insect Physiology 56:937-942.
  63. Gurulingappa, P., Sword, G.A., Murdoch, G. & McGee, P.A. (2010) Colonization of crop plants by fungal entomopathogens and their effects on two insect pests when in planta. Biological Control 55:34-41.
  64. Berthier, K., Chapuis, M-P., Simpson, S.J., Ferenz, H-J., Habib Kane, C. M., Kang, L., Lange, A., Ould Babah, M. A., Rodenburg, K. W., Rogers, S., Torto, B., Vanden Broeck, J., Van Loon, J. J. A. & Sword, G.A. (2010) Laboratory populations as a resource for understanding the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes: A global case study in locusts. Advances in Insect Physiology 39:1-37.
  65. Bazazi, S., Ioannou, C., Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A., Tourney, C. Lorch, P.D. & Couzin, I.D. (2010) The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket. PLoS ONE 5, e15118.
  66. Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., Charleston, M.A., Clissold, F.J. Clements, K.D., Coleman, R.A., Dussutour, A., Foley, W., Forbey, J., Glaze, E., Gordon, I.J., Hanan, J., Hochuli, D., Kearney, M.R., McArthur, C., Poore, A.G.B., Sword, G.A. & Wallis, I.R. (2010) Modelling nutritional interactions: from individuals to communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:53-60.
  67. Branson, D.B. & Sword, G.A. (2009) Grasshopper herbivory affects native plant diversity and abundance in a grassland dominated by the exotic grass Agropyron cristatum. Restoration Ecology 17:89-96.
  68. Reynolds, A.M., Sword, G.A., Simpson, S.J. & Reynolds, D.R. (2009) Predator percolation, insect outbreaks and phase polyphenism. Current Biology 19:20-24.
  69. Gray, L.J., Sword, G.A., Anstey, M.L., Clissold, F.J. & Simpson, S.J. (2009) Behavioural phase polyphenism in the Australian Plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera). Biology Letters 5:306-309.
  70. Srygley, R.B., Lorch, P.D., Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2009) Immediate protein dietary effects on movement and the generalized immunocompetence of migrating Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Ecological Entomology 34:633-688.
  71. Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2008) Evolution: Radiotracking sexual selection. Current Biology 18:R955-956.
  72. Sword, G.A., Lorch, P.D. & Gwynne, D.T. (2008) A radiotelemetric analysis of the effects of prevailing wind direction on Mormon cricket migratory band movement direction. Environmental Entomology 37:889-896.
  73. Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2008) Locusts. Current Biology 18:R364-366.
  74. Bazazi, S., Buhl, J., Hale, J.J., Anstey, M.L., Sword, G.A., Simpson, S.J. & Couzin, I.D. (2008) Collective motion and cannibalism in locust marching bands. Current Biology 18:735-739 (Cover story).
  75. Chapuis, M-P., Lecoq, , Loiseau, A., Michalakis, Y., Sword, G.A., Piry, S. & Estoup, A. (2008) Do outbreaks affect genetic population structure? A worldwide survey in Locusta migratoria, a pest plagued by microsatellite null alleles. Molecular Ecology 17:3640-3653.
  76. Chapuis, M-P., Popple, J.A., Simpson, S.J., Estoup, A., Martin, J.F., McCulloch, L., Steinbauer, M. & Sword, G.A. (2008) Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Australian Plague Locust, Chortoicetes terminifera. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:1414-1416.
  77. Sword, G.A., Senior, L.B., Gaskin, J.E. & Joern, A. (2007) Double trouble for grasshopper molecular systematics: Intra-individual heterogeneity of both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA sequences in Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Systematic Entomology 32:420-428.
  78. Simpson, S.J.*, Sword, G.A.*, Lorch, P.D. & Couzin, I.D. (2006) Cannibal crickets on a forced march for protein and salt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 103:4152-4156. (* equal contributors)
  79. Branson, D.H., Joern, A. & Sword, G.A. (2006) Sustainable management of insect herbivores in renewable grassland ecosystems: Developing new perspectives in grasshopper control. BioScience 56:743-755.
  80. Lovejoy, N.R., Mullen, S.P., Sword, G.A., Chapman, R.F. & Harrison, R. (2006) Ancient trans-Atlantic flight explains locust biogeography: Molecular phylogenetics of the locust genus Schistocerca. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 273:767-774.
  81. Sword, G.A. (2005) Local population density and the activation of movement in migratory band-forming Mormon crickets. Animal Behaviour 69:437-444.
  82. Sword, G.A., Lorch, P.D. & Gwynne, D.T. (2005) Migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature 433:703.
  83. Sword, G.A., Joern, A. & Senior, L.B. (2005) Host plant-associated genetic differentiation in the snakeweed grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Molecular Ecology 14:2197-2205 (Cover photo).
  84. Lorch, P.D., Sword, G.A., Gwynne, D.T. & Anderson, G.L. (2005) Radiotelemetry reveals differences in individual movement patterns between outbreak and non-outbreak Mormon cricket populations. Ecological Entomology 30:548-555.
  85. Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A. & DeLoof, A. (2005) Advances, controversies and consensus in locust phase polyphenism research. Journal of Orthoptera Research 14:213-222.
  86. Babah, M.A.O. & Sword, G.A. (2004) Linking locust gregarization to resource distribution patterns across a large spatial scale. Environmental Entomology 33:1577-1583.
  87. Sword, G.A. (2003) To be or not to be a locust? A comparative analysis of behavioral phase change in nymphs of Schistocerca americana and gregaria. Journal of Insect Physiology 47:709-717.
  88. Sword, G.A. (2002) A role for phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of aposematism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:1639-1644.
  89. Dopman, E.B., Sword, G.A., & Hillis, D.M. (2002) The importance of the ontogenetic niche in resource-associated divergence: evidence from a generalist grasshopper. Evolution 56:731-740. (Cover photo)
  90. Sword, G.A. (2001) Tasty on the outside, but toxic in the middle: Grasshopper regurgitation and host plant-mediated toxicity to a vertebrate predator. Oecologia 128:416-421.
  91. Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2000) Is there an intraspecific function for density-dependent color change in the Desert locust? Animal Behaviour 59:861-870.
  92. Sword, G.A., Simpson, S.J., El Hadi, O.T.M. & Wilps, H. (2000) Density-dependent aposematism in the Desert locust. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267:63-68.
  93. Sword, G.A. (1999) Density-dependent warning coloration. Nature 397:217.
  94. Sword, G.A. and Dopman, E.B. (1999) Developmental specialization and geographic structure of host plant use in a polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (=lineata) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Oecologia 120:437-445.
  95. Chambers, P., Sword, G., Angel, J., Behmer, S. & Bernays, E.A. (1996) Foraging by generalist grasshoppers: dietary mixing in two cryptic species. Animal Behaviour 52:155-165.
  96. Chapman, R.F., Espelie, K.E. & Sword, G.A. (1995)  Use of cuticular lipids in grasshopper taxonomy:  A study of variation in Schistocerca shoshone (Thomas). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 23:383-398.
  97. Sword, G.A. and Chapman, R.F. (1994) Monophagy in a polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca shoshone. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 73:225-234.
  98. Chapman, R.F. and Sword, G.A. (1994) The relationship between plant acceptability and suitability for survival and development in the polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca americana. Journal of Insect Behavior 7:411-431.
  99. Espelie, K.E., Chapman, R.F. & Sword, G.A. (1994) Variation in the surface lipids of the grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (Drury). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22:563-575.
  100. Chapman, R.F. and Sword, G. (1993) The importance of palpation in food selection by a polyphagous grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Journal of Insect Behavior 6:79-91.

Book Chapters

  1. Cresswell, K.A., Satterthwaite W.H. & Sword, G.A. (2011) Understanding the evolution of migration through empirical examples. In: Fryxell, J., Milner- Gulland, E.J. & Sinclair, A.R.E. (eds.) Migration – A Synthesis. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 7-16.
  2. Simpson, S.J. & Sword, G.A. (2009) Phase polyphenism in locusts: Mechanisms, population consequences, adaptive significance and evolution. In: Whitman, D. & Ananthakrishnan, T. (eds.) Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects: Mechanisms and Consequences. Science Publishers Inc., Plymouth, pp 147-190.
  3. Sword, G.A. (2008) Gregarious behaviour in insects. In: Capinera, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Netherlands, pp. 1733-1740.
  4. Beekman, M., Sword, G.A. & Simpson, S.J. (2008) Biological foundations of swarm intelligence. In: Blum, C. & Merkle, D. (eds.) Swarm Intelligence – Introduction and applications. Springer, Netherlands, pp. 3-41.
  5. Chapman, R.F. and Sword, G.A. (1997) Polyphagy in the Acridomorpha. In: Gangwere, S.K., Muralirangan, M.C. & Muralirangan, M. (eds.)  The Bionomics of Grasshoppers, Katydids and Their Kin.  CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 183-195.